7. ION CHANNEL MUSCLE DISEASES (Return to Disease group)
Disease phenotype
Item in this table
References
Gene symbol (chromosome)
protein
Myotonia congenita , dominant (Thomsen) - (AD)
7.1
Koch MC, Steinmeyer K, Lorenz C, Ricker K, Wolf F, Otto M, Zoll B, Lehmann-Horn F, Grzeschik KH, Jentsch TJ. The skeletal muscle chloride channel in dominant and recessive human myotonia. Science. 1992 Aug 7;257(5071):797-800. (1379744)
George AL Jr, Crackower MA, Abdalla JA, Hudson AJ, Ebers GC. Molecular basis of Thomsen's disease (autosomal dominant myotonia congenita). Nat Genet. 1993 Apr;3(4):305-10. (7981750)
CLCN1 (7q35)
Chloride channel 1, skeletal muscle (Thomsen disease, autosomal dominant)
Myotonia, recessive (Becker) - (AR)
7.2
Koch MC, Steinmeyer K, Lorenz C, Ricker K, Wolf F, Otto M, Zoll B, Lehmann-Horn F, Grzeschik KH, Jentsch TJ. The skeletal muscle chloride channel in dominant and recessive human myotonia. Science. 1992 Aug 7;257(5071):797-800. (1379744)
CLCN1 (7q35)
Chloride channel 1, skeletal muscle (Thomsen disease, autosomal dominant)
Hyperkalemic periodic paralysis - (AD)
7.3
Fontaine B, Khurana TS, Hoffman EP, Bruns GA, Haines JL, Trofatter JA, Hanson MP, Rich J, McFarlane H, Yasek DM, et al. Hyperkalemic periodic paralysis and the adult muscle sodium channel alpha-subunit gene. Science. 1990 Nov 16;250(4983):1000-2. (2173143)
Ptacek LJ, Trimmer JS, Agnew WS, Roberts JW, Petajan JH, Leppert M. Paramyotonia congenita and hyperkalemic periodic paralysis map to the same sodium-channel gene locus. Am J Hum Genet. 1991 Oct;49(4):851-4. (1654742)
Rojas CV, Wang JZ, Schwartz LS, Hoffman EP, Powell BR, Brown RH Jr. A Met-to-Val mutation in the skeletal muscle Na+ channel alpha-subunit in hyperkalaemic periodic paralysis. Nature. 1991 Dec 5;354(6352):387-9. (1659668)
Ptacek LJ, George AL Jr, Griggs RC, Tawil R, Kallen RG, Barchi RL, Robertson M, Leppert MF. Identification of a mutation in the gene causing hyperkalemic periodic paralysis. Cell. 1991 Nov 29;67(5):1021-7. (1659948)
Ptacek LJ, Tawil R, Griggs RC, Meola G, McManis P, Barohn RJ, Mendell JR, Harris C, Spitzer R, Santiago F, et al. Sodium channel mutations in acetazolamide-responsive myotonia congenita, paramyotonia congenita, and hyperkalemic periodic paralysis. Neurology. 1994 Aug;44(8):1500-3. (8058156)
SCN4A (17q23-q25.3)
Sodium channel, voltage-gated, type IV, alpha
Hypokalemic periodic paralysis type 2 - (AD)
7.4
Bulman DE, Scoggan KA, van Oene MD, Nicolle MW, Hahn AF, Tollar LL, Ebers GC. A novel sodium channel mutation in a family with hypokalemic periodic paralysis. Neurology. 1999 Dec 10;53(9):1932-6. (10599760)
Jurkat-Rott K, Mitrovic N, Hang C, Kouzmekine A, Iaizzo P, Herzog J, Lerche H, Nicole S, Vale-Santos J, Chauveau D, Fontaine B, Lehmann-Horn F. Voltage-sensor sodium channel mutations cause hypokalemic periodic paralysis type 2 by enhanced inactivation and reduced current. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2000 Aug 15;97(17):9549-54. (10944223)
SCN4A (17q23-q25.3)
Sodium channel, voltage-gated, type IV, alpha
Paramyotonia congenita - (AD)
7.5
Ptacek LJ, Trimmer JS, Agnew WS, Roberts JW, Petajan JH, Leppert M. Paramyotonia congenita and hyperkalemic periodic paralysis map to the same sodium-channel gene locus. Am J Hum Genet. 1991 Oct;49(4):851-4. (1316765)
Ebers GC, George AL, Barchi RL, Ting-Passador SS, Kallen RG, Lathrop GM, Beckmann JS, Hahn AF, Brown WF, Campbell RD, et al. Paramyotonia congenita and hyperkalemic periodic paralysis are linked to the adult muscle sodium channel gene. Ann Neurol. 1991 Dec;30(6):810-6. (1654742)
McClatchey AI, Van den Bergh P, Pericak-Vance MA, Raskind W, Verellen C, McKenna-Yasek D, Rao K, Haines JL, Bird T, Brown RH Jr, et al. Temperature-sensitive mutations in the III-IV cytoplasmic loop region of the skeletal muscle sodium channel gene in paramyotonia congenita. Cell. 1992 Feb 21;68(4):769-74. (1310898)
Pt√°cek LJ, George AL Jr, Barchi RL, Griggs RC, Riggs JE, Robertson M, Leppert MF. Mutations in an S4 segment of the adult skeletal muscle sodium channel cause paramyotonia congenita. Neuron. 1992 May;8(5):891-7. (8388676)
Ptacek LJ, Gouw L, Kwiecinski H, McManis P, Mendell JR, Barohn RJ, George AL Jr, Barchi RL, Robertson M, Leppert MF. Sodium channel mutations in paramyotonia congenita and hyperkalemic periodic paralysis. Ann Neurol. 1993 Mar;33(3):300-7. (1686388)
SCN4A (17q23-q25.3)
Sodium channel, voltage-gated, type IV, alpha
Potassium aggravated myotonia - (AD)
7.6
Ptacek LJ, Tawil R, Griggs RC, Storvick D, Leppert M. Linkage of atypical myotonia congenita to a sodium channel locus. Neurology. 1992 Feb;42(2):431-3. (8308722)
Lerche H, Heine R, Pika U, George AL Jr, Mitrovic N, Browatzki M, Weiss T, Rivet-Bastide M, Franke C, Lomonaco M, et al. Human sodium channel myotonia: slowed channel inactivation due to substitutions for a glycine within the III-IV linker. J Physiol. 1993 Oct;470:13-22. (8058156)
Heine, R.; Pika, U.; Lehmann-Horn, F. : A novel SCN4A mutation causing myotonia aggravated by cold and potassium. Hum. Molec. Genet. 2: 1349-1353, 1993. (8242056)
Ptacek LJ, Tawil R, Griggs RC, Meola G, McManis P, Barohn RJ, Mendell JR, Harris C, Spitzer R, Santiago F, et al. Sodium channel mutations in acetazolamide-responsive myotonia congenita, paramyotonia congenita, and hyperkalemic periodic paralysis. Neurology. 1994 Aug;44(8):1500-3. (1310531)
SCN4A (17q23-q25.3)
Sodium channel, voltage-gated, type IV, alpha
Long QT syndrome (Romano-Ward syndrome) - (AD)
7.7
Wang Q, Shen J, Splawski I, Atkinson D, Li Z, Robinson JL, Moss AJ, Towbin JA, Keating MT. SCN5A mutations associated with an inherited cardiac arrhythmia, long QT syndrome. Cell. 1995 Mar 10;80(5):805-11. (7889574)
SCN5A (3p21)
Voltage-gated sodium channel type V alpha
Hypokalaemic periodic paralysis type 1 - (AD)
7.8
Jurkat-Rott K, Lehmann-Horn F, Elbaz A, Heine R, Gregg RG, Hogan K, Powers PA, Lapie P, Vale-Santos JE, Weissenbach J, et al. A calcium channel mutation causing hypokalemic periodic paralysis. Hum Mol Genet. 1994 Aug;3(8):1415-9. (7987325)
Fontaine B, Vale-Santos J, Jurkat-Rott K, Reboul J, Plassart E, Rime CS, Elbaz A, Heine R, Guimaraes J, Weissenbach J, et al. Mapping of the hypokalaemic periodic paralysis (HypoPP) locus to chromosome 1q31-32 in three European families. Nat Genet. 1994 Mar;6(3):267-72. (8012389)
Elbaz A, Vale-Santos J, Jurkat-Rott K, Lapie P, Ophoff RA, Bady B, Links TP, Piussan C, Vila A, Monnier N, et al. Hypokalemic periodic paralysis and the dihydropyridine receptor (CACNL1A3): genotype/phenotype correlations for two predominant mutations and evidence for the absence of a founder effect in 16 caucasian families. Am J Hum Genet. 1995 Feb;56(2):374-80. (7847370)
CACNA1S (1q32)
Calcium channel, voltage-dependent, L type, alpha 1S subunit
Acetazolamide responsive hereditary paroxysmal cerebellar ataxia - (AD)
7.9
Vahedi K, Joutel A, Van Bogaert P, et al. A gene for hereditary paroxysmal cerebellar ataxia maps to chromosome 19p. Ann Neurol 1995;37:289- 293. (7695228)
Von Brederlow B, Hahn AF, Koopman WJ, Ebers GC, Bulman DE. Mapping the gene for acetazolamide responsive hereditary paryoxysmal cerebellar ataxia to chromosome 19p. Hum Mol Genet. 1995 Feb;4(2):279-84. (7757080)
CACNA1A (19p13.2-p13.1)
Calcium channel, voltage-dependent, P/Q type, alpha 1A subunit
Episodic ataxia type-2 - (AD)
7.10
Ophoff RA, Terwindt GM, Vergouwe MN, van Eijk R, Oefner PJ, Hoffman SM, Lamerdin JE, Mohrenweiser HW, Bulman DE, Ferrari M, Haan J, Lindhout D, van Ommen GJ, Hofker MH, Ferrari MD, Frants RR. Familial hemiplegic migraine and episodic ataxia type-2 are caused by mutations in the Ca2+ channel gene CACNL1A4. Cell. 1996 Nov 1;87(3):543-52. (8898206)
Jodice C, Mantuano E, Veneziano L, Trettel F, Sabbadini G, Calandriello L, Francia A, Spadaro M, Pierelli F, Salvi F, Ophoff RA, Frants RR, Frontali M. Episodic ataxia type 2 (EA2) and spinocerebellar ataxia type 6 (SCA6) due to CAG repeat expansion in the CACNA1A gene on chromosome 19p. Hum Mol Genet. 1997 Oct;6(11):1973-8. (9302278)
CACNA1A (19p13.2-p13.1)
Calcium channel, voltage-dependent, P/Q type, alpha 1A subunit
Hypokalemic periodic paralysis type 3 - (AD)
7.11
Abbott GW, Butler MH, Bendahhou S, Dalakas MC, Ptacek LJ, Goldstein SA. MiRP2 forms potassium channels in skeletal muscle with Kv3.4 and is associated with periodic paralysis. Cell. 2001 Jan 26;104(2):217-31. (11207363)
KCNE3 (11q13-q14)
Potassium voltage-gated channel, Isk-related family, member 3
Episodic ataxia/myokymia - (AD)
7.12
Browne DL, Gancher ST, Nutt JG, Brunt ER, Smith EA, Kramer P, Litt M. Episodic ataxia/myokymia syndrome is associated with point mutations in the human potassium channel gene, KCNA1. Nat Genet. 1994 Oct;8(2):136-40. (7842011)
KCNA1 (12p13)
Potassium voltage-gated channel, shaker-related subfamily, member 1
7.13
Ryan DP, da Silva MR, Soong TW, Fontaine B, Donaldson MR, Kung AW, Jongjaroenprasert W, Liang MC, Khoo DH, Cheah JS, Ho SC, Bernstein HS, Maciel RM, Brown RH Jr, Pt√°cek LJ. Mutations in potassium channel Kir2.6 cause susceptibility to thyrotoxic hypokalemic periodic paralysis. Cell. 2010 Jan 8;140(1):88-98. (20074522)
KCNJ18 (17p11.2)
Kir2.6 (inwardly rectifying potassium channel 2.6)
Periodic paralysis, potassium-sensitive cardiodysrhythmic Andersen-Tawil syndrom - (AD)
7.14
Adelman, J. P.; Bond, C. T.; Pessia, M.; Maylie, J. : Episodic ataxia results from voltage-dependent potassium channels with altered functions. Neuron 15: 1449-1454, 1995. (8845167)
Abbott GW, Butler MH, Bendahhou S, Dalakas MC, Ptacek LJ, Goldstein SA. MiRP2 forms potassium channels in skeletal muscle with Kv3.4 and is associated with periodic paralysis. Cell. 2001 Jan 26;104(2):217-31. (11207363)
Plaster NM, Tawil R, Tristani-Firouzi M, Canun S, Bendahhou S, Tsunoda A, Donaldson MR, Iannaccone ST, Brunt E, Barohn R, Clark J, Deymeer F, George AL Jr, Fish FA, Hahn A, Nitu A, Ozdemir C, Serdaroglu P, Subramony SH, Wolfe G, Fu YH, Ptacek LJ. Mutations in Kir2.1 cause the developmental and episodic electrical phenotypes of Andersen's syndrome. Cell. 2001 May 18;105(4):511-9. (11371347)
KCNJ2 (17q23)
Potassium inwardly-rectifying channel J2
Long QT syndrome (Romano-Ward syndrome) - (AD)
7.15
Curran ME, Splawski I, Timothy KW, Vincent GM, Green ED, Keating MT. Related Articles, Links A molecular basis for cardiac arrhythmia: HERG mutations cause long QT syndrome. Cell. 1995 Mar 10;80(5):795-803. (7889573)
KCNH2 (7q35-q36)
Voltage-gated potassium channel, subfamily H, member 2
Potassium channel Long QT syndrome (Romano-Ward syndrome) - (AD)
7.16
Wang Q, Curran ME, Splawski I, Burn TC, Millholland JM, VanRaay TJ, Shen J, Timothy KW, Vincent GM, de Jager T, Schwartz PJ, Toubin JA, Moss AJ, Atkinson DL, Landes GM, Connors TD, Keating MT. Positional cloning of a novel potassium channel gene: KVLQT1 mutations cause cardiac arrhythmias. Nat Genet. 1996 Jan;12(1):17-23. (8528244)
KCNQ1 (11p15.5)
Potassium voltage-gated channel, KQT-like subfamily, member 1
Potassium channel Long QT syndrome (Jervell and Lange-Nielsen cardioauditory syndrome) - (AR)
7.17
Neyroud N, Tesson F, Denjoy I, Leibovici M, Donger C, Barhanin J, Faure S, Gary F, Coumel P, Petit C, Schwartz K, Guicheney P. A novel mutation in the potassium channel gene KVLQT1 causes the Jervell and Lange-Nielsen cardioauditory syndrome. Nat Genet. 1997 Feb;15(2):186-9. (9020846)
KCNQ1 (11p15.5)
Potassium voltage-gated channel, KQT-like subfamily, member 1
Potassium channel Long QT syndrome (Romano-Ward syndrome) - (AD)
7.18
Splawski I, Tristani-Firouzi M, Lehmann MH, Sanguinetti MC, Keating MT. Mutations in the hminK gene cause long QT syndrome and suppress IKs function. Nat Genet. 1997 Nov;17(3):338-40. (9354802)
KCNE2 (21q22.12)
Potassium voltage-gated channel, Isk-related family, member 2
Long QT syndrome (Jervell and Lange-Nielsen cardioauditory syndrome) - (AR)
7.19
Schulze-Bahr E, Wang Q, Wedekind H, Haverkamp W, Chen Q, Sun Y, Rubie C, Hordt M, Towbin JA, Borggrefe M, Assmann G, Qu X, Somberg JC, Breithardt G, Oberti C, Funke H. KCNE1 mutations cause jervell and Lange-Nielsen syndrome. Nat Genet. 1997 Nov;17(3):267-8. (9354783)
KCNE1 (21q22.1-q22.2)
Potassium voltage-gated channel, Isk-related family, member 1