11. CONGENITAL MYASTHENIC SYNDROMES (Return to Disease group)
Disease phenotype
Item in this table
References
Gene symbol (chromosome)
protein
Slow channel syndromes - (AD)
11.1
Sine SM, Ohno K, Bouzat C, Auerbach A, Milone M, Pruitt JN, Engel AG. Mutation of the acetylcholine receptor alpha subunit causes a slow-channel myasthenic syndrome by enhancing agonist binding affinity. Neuron. 1995 Jul;15(1):229-39. (7619526)
Engel AG, Ohno K, Milone M, Wang HL, Nakano S, Bouzat C, Pruitt JN 2nd, Hutchinson DO, Brengman JM, Bren N, Sieb JP, Sine SM. New mutations in acetylcholine receptor subunit genes reveal heterogeneity in the slow-channel congenital myasthenic syndrome. Hum Mol Genet. 1996 Sep;5(9):1217-27. (8872460)
Croxen R, Newland C, Beeson D, Oosterhuis H, Chauplannaz G, Vincent A, Newsom-Davis J. Mutations in different functional domains of the human muscle acetylcholine receptor alpha subunit in patients with the slow-channel congenital myasthenic syndrome. Hum Mol Genet. 1997 May;6(5):767-74. (9158151)
CHRNA1 (2q24-q32)
Cholinergic receptor, nicotinic, alpha polypeptide 1
Slow channel syndromes - (AD)
11.2
Gomez CM, Maselli R, Gammack J, Lasalde J, Tamamizu S, Cornblath DR, Lehar M, McNamee M, Kuncl RW. A beta-subunit mutation in the acetylcholine receptor channel gate causes severe slow-channel syndrome. Ann Neurol. 1996 Jun;39(6):712-23. (8651643)
Engel AG, Ohno K, Milone M, Wang HL, Nakano S, Bouzat C, Pruitt JN 2nd, Hutchinson DO, Brengman JM, Bren N, Sieb JP, Sine SM. New mutations in acetylcholine receptor subunit genes reveal heterogeneity in the slow-channel congenital myasthenic syndrome. Hum Mol Genet. 1996 Sep;5(9):1217-27. (8872460)
CHRNB1 (17p13.1)
Cholinergic receptor, nicotinic, beta 1 muscle
Slow channel syndromes - (AD)
11.3
Gomez, C. M.; Maselli, R. A.; Vohra, B. P. S.; Navedo, M.; Stiles, J. R.; Charnet, P.; Schott, K.; Rojas, L.; Keesey, J.; Verity, A.; Wollmann, R. W.; Lasalde-Dominicci, J. : Novel delta subunit mutation in slow-channel syndrome causes severe weakness by novel mechanisms. Ann. Neurol. 51: 102-112, 2002. (11782989)
CHRND (2q33-q34)
Cholinergic receptor, nicotinic, delta
Slow channel syndromes - (AD, AR)
11.4
Ohno K, Hutchinson DO, Milone M, Brengman JM, Bouzat C, Sine SM, Engel AG. Congenital myasthenic syndrome caused by prolonged acetylcholine receptor channel openings due to a mutation in the M2 domain of the epsilon subunit. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1995 Jan 31;92(3):758-62. (12034803)
Engel AG, Ohno K, Milone M, Wang HL, Nakano S, Bouzat C, Pruitt JN 2nd, Hutchinson DO, Brengman JM, Bren N, Sieb JP, Sine SM. New mutations in acetylcholine receptor subunit genes reveal heterogeneity in the slow-channel congenital myasthenic syndrome. Hum Mol Genet. 1996 Sep;5(9):1217-27. (7531341)
Croxen, R.; Vincent, A.; Newsom-Davis, J.; Beeson, D. : Myasthenia gravis in a woman with congenital AChR deficiency due to epsilon-subunit mutations. Neurology 58: 1563-1565, 2002. (8872460)
CHRNE (17p13-p12)
Cholinergic receptor, nicotinic, epsilon
Fast channel syndrome - (AR)
11.5
Wang, H.-L.; Milone, M.; Ohno, K.; Shen, X-M.; Tsujino, A.; Batocchi,m A. P.; Tonali, P.; Brengman, J.; Engel, A. G.; Sine, S. M. : Acetylcholine receptor M3 domain: sterochemical and volume contributions to channel gating. Nature Neurosci. 2: 226-233, 1999. (10195214)
CHRNA1 (2q24-q32)
Cholinergic receptor, nicotinic, alpha polypeptide 1
Fast channel syndrome - (AR)
11.6
Brownlow, S.; Webster, R.; Croxen, R.; Brydson, M.; Neville, B.; Lin, J.-P.; Vincent, A.; Newsom-Davis, J.; Beeson, D. : Acetylcholine receptor delta subunit mutations underlie a fast-channel myasthenic syndrome and arthrogryposis multiplex congenita. J. Clin. Invest. 108: 125-130, 2001. (11435464)
CHRND (2q33-q34)
Cholinergic receptor, nicotinic, delta
Fast channel syndrome - (AR)
11.7
Ohno K, Wang HL, Milone M, Bren N, Brengman JM, Nakano S, Quiram P, Pruitt JN, Sine SM, Engel AG. Congenital myasthenic syndrome caused by decreased agonist binding affinity due to a mutation in the acetylcholine receptor epsilon subunit. Neuron. 1996 Jul;17(1):157-70. (8755487)
CHRNE (17p13-p12)
Cholinergic receptor, nicotinic, epsilon
Acetylcholine receptor deficiency - (AR)
11.8
Quiram, P. A.; Ohno, K.; Milone, M.; Patterson, M. C.; Pruitt, N. J.; Brengman, J. M.; Sine, S. M.; Engel, A. G. : Mutation causing congenital myasthenia reveals acetylcholine receptor beta/delta subunit interaction essential for assembly. J. Clin. Invest. 104: 1403-1410, 1999. (10562302)
CHRNB1 (17p13.1)
Cholinergic receptor, nicotinic, beta 1 muscle
Acetylcholine receptor deficiency - (AR)
11.9
Shen, X.-M.; Ohno, K.; Fukudome, T.; Tsujino, A.; Brengman, J. M.; De Vivo, D. C.; Packer, R. J.; Engel, A. G. : Congenital myasthenic syndrome caused by low-expressor fast-channel AChR-delta subunit mutation. Neurology 59: 1881-1888, 2002. (12499478)
CHRND (2q33-q34)
Cholinergic receptor, nicotinic, delta
Acetylcholine receptor deficiency - (AR)
11.10
Engel AG, Ohno K, Bouzat C, Sine SM, Griggs RC. End-plate acetylcholine receptor deficiency due to nonsense mutations in the epsilon sub-unit. Ann Neurol 1996;40:810-817. (8957026)
Ohno K, Quiram PA, Milone M, et al. Congenital myasthenic syndromes due to heteroallelic nonsense/missense mutations in the acetylcholine receptor epsilon subunit gene: identification and functional characterization of 6 new mutations. Hum Mol Genet 1997;6:753-767. (9158150)
CHRNE (17p13-p12)
Cholinergic receptor, nicotinic, epsilon
Congenital myasthenic syndrome related to rapsyn - (AR)
11.11
Ohno, K.; Engel, A. G.; Shen, X.-M.; Selcen, D.; Brengman, J.; Harper, C. M.; Tsujino, A.; Milone, M. : Rapsyn mutations in humans cause endplate acetylcholine-receptor deficiency and myasthenic syndrome. Am. J. Hum. Genet. 70: 875-885, 2002. (11791205)
Ohno, K.; Sadeh, M.; Blatt, I.; Brengman, J. M.; Engel, A. G. : E-box mutations in the RAPSN promoter region in eight cases with congenital myasthenic syndrome. Hum. Molec. Genet. 12: 39-748, 2003 (12651869)
RAPSN (11p11.2-p11.1)
Rapsyn
Congenital myasthenic syndrome related to choline acetyltransferase - (AR)
11.12
Strauss, W. L.; Kemper, R. R.; Jayakar, P.; Kong, C. F.; Hersh, L. B.; Hilt, D. C.; Rabin, M. : Human choline acetyltransferase gene maps to region 10q11-q22.2 by in situ hybridization. Genomics 9: 396-398, 1991. (1840566)
Ohno, K.; Tsujino, A.; Brengman, J. M.; Harper, C. M.; Bajzer, Z.; Udd, B.; Beyring, R.; Robb, S.; Kirkham, F. J.; Engel, A. G. : Choline acetyltransferase mutations cause myasthenic syndrome associated with episodic apnea in humans. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. 98: 2017-2022, 2001. (11172068)
CHAT (10q11.2)
Choline acetyltransferase isoform
Congenital myasthenic syndrome related to end-plate acetylcholin-esterase - (AR)
11.13
Donger C, Krejci E, Serradell AP, Eymard B, Bon S, Nicole S, Chateau D, Gary F, Fardeau M, Massoulie J, Guicheney P. Mutation in the human acetylcholinesterase-associated collagen gene, COLQ, is responsible for congenital myasthenic syndrome with end-plate acetylcholinesterase deficiency (Type Ic). Am J Hum Genet. 1998 Oct;63(4):967-75. (9758617)
COLQ (3p25)
Acetylcholinesterase collagen-like tail subunit
Congenital myasthenic syndrome related to MuSK - (AR)
11.14
Chevessier, F.; Faraut, B.; Ravel-Chapuis A., Richard, P.; Gaudon, K.; Bauché, S.; Prioleau, C.; Herbst, R.; Goillot, E.; Ioos, C.; Azulay, J.P.; Attarian, S.; Leroy, J.P.; Fournier, E.; Legay, C.; Schaeffer, L.; Koenig, J.; Fardeau, M.; Eymard, B.; Pouget, J.; Hantaï, D. MUSK, a new target for mutations causing congenital myasthenic syndrome. J. Med. Genet. 13: 3229-3240, 2004. (15496425)
MUSK (9q31.3-q32)
muscle, skeletal, receptor tyrosine kinase
Familial limb-girdle myasthenia related to DOK7 - (AR)
11.15
Beeson, D.; Higuchi, O.; Palace, J.; Cossins, J.; Spearman, H.; Maxwell, S.; Newsom-Davis, J.; Burke, G.; Fawcett, P.; Motomura, M.; Müller, J. S.; Lochmüller, H.; Slater, C.; Vincent, A.; Yamanashi, Y. : Dok-7 mutations underlie a neuromuscular junction synaptopathy. Science 313: 1975-1978, 2006. (16917026)
Selcen D, Milone M, Shen XM, Harper CM, Stans AA, Wieben ED, Engel AG. Dok-7 myasthenia: phenotypic and molecular genetic studies in 16 patients. Ann Neurol. 2008 Jul;64(1):71-87. (18626973)
DOK7 (4p16.2)
Docking protein 7
Familial limb girdle myasthenia related to agrin - (AR)
11.16
Huzé C, Bauché S, Richard P, Chevessier F, Goillot E, Gaudon K, Ben Ammar A, Chaboud A, Grosjean I, Lecuyer HA, Bernard V, Rouche A, Alexandri N, Kuntzer T, Fardeau M, Fournier E, Brancaccio A, Rüegg MA, Koenig J, Eymard B, Schaeffer L, Hantaï D. Identification of an agrin mutation that causes congenital myasthenia and affects synapse function. Am J Hum Genet. 2009 Aug;85(2):155-67. Epub 2009 Jul 23. (19631309)
AGRN (1p36.33)
Agrin
Familial limb girdle myasthenia with tubular aggregates related to GFPT1 - (AR)
11.17
Senderek, J., Muller, J. S., Dusl, M., Strom, T. M., Guergueltcheva, V., Diepolder, I., Laval, S. H., Maxwell, S., Cossins, J., Krause, S., Muelas, N., Vilchez, J. J., and 27 others. Hexosamine biosynthetic pathway mutations cause neuromuscular transmission defect. Am. J. Hum. Genet. 88: 162-172, 2011. (21310273)
GFPT1 (2p12-p15)
Glutamine-fructose-6-phosphate transaminase 1
Familial limb-girdle myasthenia with tubular aggregates related to DPAGT1 - (AR)
11.18
Belaya, K., Finlayson, S., Slater, C. R., Cossins, J., Liu, W. W., Maxwell, S., McGowan, S. J., Maslau, S., Twigg, S. R. F., Walls, T. J., Pascual Pascual, S. I., Palace, J., Beeson, D. Mutations in DPAGT1 cause a limb-girdle congenital myasthenic syndrome with tubular aggregates. Am. J. Hum. Genet. 91: 193-201, 2012. (22742743)
DPAGT1 (11q23.3)
Dolichyl-phosphate (UDP-N-acetylglucosamine) N-acetylglucosaminephosphotransferase 1 (GlcNAc-1-P transferase)
Congenital myasthenic syndrome with nephrotic syndrome - (AR)
11.19
Maselli, R. A., Ng, J. J., Anderson, J. A., Cagney, O., Arredondo, J., Williams, C., Wessel, H. B., Abdel-Hamid, H., Wollmann, R. L. Mutations in LAMB2 causing a severe form of synaptic congenital myasthenic syndrome. J. Med. Genet. 46: 203-208, 2009. (19251977)
LAMB2 (3p21)
Laminin, beta 2 (laminin S)
Myasthenic syndrome, acetazolamide-responsive - (AR)
11.20
Tsujino A, Maertens C, Ohno K, Shen XM, Fukuda T, Harper CM, Cannon SC, Engel AG. Myasthenic syndrome caused by mutation of the SCN4A sodium channel. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003 Jun 10;100(12):7377-82. Epub 2003 May 23. (12766226)
SCN4A (17q23-q25.3)
Sodium channel, voltage-gated, type IV, alpha
Escobar syndrome (multiple pterygium syndrome) - (AR)
11.21
Hoffmann, K.; Müller, J. S.; Stricker, S.; Megarbane, A.; Rajab, A.; Lindner, T. H.; Cohen, M.; Chouery, E.; Adaimy, L.; Ghanem, I.; Delague, V.; Boltshauser, E.; Talim, B.; Horvath, R.; Robinson, P. N.; Lochmüller, H.; Hubner, C.; Mundlos, S. : Escobar syndrome is a prenatal myasthenia caused by disruption of the acetylcholine receptor fetal gamma subunit. Am. J. Hum. Genet. 79: 303-312, 2006. (16826520)
Morgan, N. V.; Brueton, L. A.; Cox, P.; Greally, M. T.; Tolmie, J.; Pasha, S.; Aligianis, I. A.; van Bokhoven, H.; Marton, T.; Al-Gazali, L.; Morton, J. E. V.; Oley, C.; Johnson, C. A.; Trembath, R. C.; Brunner, H. G.; Maher, E. R. : Mutations in the embryonal subunit of the acetylcholine receptor (CHRNG) cause lethal and Escobar variants of multiple pterygium syndrome. Am. J. Hum. Genet. 79: 390-395, 2006. (16826531)
CHRNG (2q33-q34)
Cholinergic receptor, nicotinic, gamma polypeptide
Myasthenic syndrome, with plectin defect - (AR)
11.22
Banwell BL, Russel J, Fukudome T, Shen XM, Stilling G, Engel AG. Myopathy, myasthenic syndrome, and epidermolysis bullosa simplex due to plectin deficiency. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 1999 Aug;58(8):832-46. (10446808)
Selcen, D., Juel, V. C., Hobson-Webb, L. D., Smith, E. C., Stickler, D. E., Bite, A. V., Ohno, K., Engel, A. G. Myasthenic syndrome caused by plectinopathy. Neurology 76: 327-336, 2011. (21263134)
PLEC (8q24.3)
plectin
Congenital myasthenic syndrome with tubular aggregates - (AR)
11.23
Cossins J, Belaya K, Hicks D, et al. Congenital myasthenic syndromes due to mutations in ALG2 and ALG14. Brain. 2013 Mar;136 (Pt3):944–56. (23404334)
ALG2 (9q31.1)
Alpha-1,3/1,6-mannosyltransferase
Congenital myasthenic syndrome related to ALG14 - (AR)
11.24
Cossins J, Belaya K, Hicks D, et al. Congenital myasthenic syndromes due to mutations in ALG2 and ALG14. Brain. 2013 Mar;136 (Pt3):944–56. (23404334)
ALG14 (1p21.3)
UDP-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase
Myasthenic syndrome, presynaptic, congenital, with or without motor neuropathy - (AD)
11.25
Herrmann, D. N., Horvath, R., Sowden, J. E., Gonzalez, M., Sanchez-Mejias, A., Guan, Z., Whittaker, R. G., Almodovar, J. L., Lane, M., Bansagi, B., Pyle, A., Boczonadi, V., Lochmuller, H., Griffin, H., Chinnery, P. F., Lloyd, T. E., Littleton, J. T., Zuchner, S. Synaptotagmin 2 mutations cause an autosomal-dominant form of Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome and nonprogressive motor neuropathy. Am. J. Hum. Genet. 95: 332-339, 2014. Note: Erratum: Am. J. Hum. Genet. 95: 472 only, 2014. (25192047)
SYT2 (1q32.1)
Synaptotagmin II
11.26
Régal L, Shen XM, Selcen D, Verhille C, Meulemans S, Creemers JW, Engel AG. PREPL deficiency with or without cystinuria causes a novel myasthenic syndrome. Neurology. 2014 Apr 8;82(14):1254-60. doi: 10.1212/WNL.0000000000000295. Epub 2014 Mar 7. (24610330)
PREPL (2p22.1)
Prolyl endopeptidase-like
Congenital myasthenic syndrome - (AR)
11.27
Ohkawara B., Cabrera-Serrano M., Nakata T. LRP4 third betapropeller domain mutations cause novel congenital myasthenia by compromising agrin-mediated MuSK signaling in a position-specific manner. Hum Mol Genet 2014;23:1856–68 (24234652)
LRP4 (11p11.2)
LDL receptor related protein 4
Congenital myasthenic syndrome with intellectual disability and ataxia - (AD)
11.28
Shen, X.-M., Selcen, D., Brengman, J., Engel, A. G. Mutant SNAP25B causes myasthenia, cortical hyperexcitability, ataxia, and intellectual disability. Neurology 83: 2247-2255, 2014. (25381298)
SNAP25 (20p12.2)
synaptosome associated protein 25
Congenital myasthenic syndrome type 19 - (AR)
11.29
Logan, C. V., Cossins, J., Rodriguez Cruz, P. M., Parry, D. A., Maxwell, S., Martinez-Martinez, P., Riepsaame, J., Abdelhamed, Z. A., Lake, A. V. R., Moran, M., Robb, S., Chow, G., Sewry, C., Hopkins, P. M., Sheridan, E., Jayawant, S., Palace, J., Johnson, C. A., Beeson, D. Congenital myasthenic syndrome type 19 is caused by mutations in COL13A1, encoding the atypical non-fibrillar collagen type XIII alpha-1 chain. Am. J. Hum. Genet. 97: 878-885, 2015. (26626625)
COL13A1 (10q22.1)
collagen type XIII alpha 1 chain
Congenital myasthenic syndrome with episodic apnea - (AR)
11.30
Bauche, S., O'Regan, S., Azuma, Y., Laffargue, F., McMacken, G., Sternberg, D., Brochier, G., Buon, C., Bouzidi, N., Topf, A., Lacene, E., Remerand, G., and 30 others. Impaired presynaptic high-affinity choline transporter causes a congenital myasthenic syndrome with episodic apnea. Am. J. Hum. Genet. 99: 753-761, 2016. (27569547)
SLC5A7 (2q12.31)
Solute carrier family 5 (sodium/choline cotransporter), member 7
Congenital Myasthenia - (AR)
11.31
O’Connor E., Topf A., Müller J.S., et al. Identification of mutations in the MYO9A gene in patients with congenital myasthenic syndrome. Brain 2016; 139:2143–2153. (27259756)
MYO9A (15q23)
myosin IXA
Congenital Myasthenic syndrome related to GMPPB - (AR)
11.32
Belaya K., Rodriguez Cruz P.M., Liu W.W., et al. Mutations in GMPPB cause congenital myasthenic syndrome and bridge myasthenic disorders with dystroglycanopathies. Brain 2015;138:2493–504 (26133662)
GMPPB (3p21.31)
GDP-mannose pyrophosphorylase B