16. OTHER NEUROMUSCULAR DISORDERS (Return to Disease group)
Disease phenotype
Item in this table
References
Gene symbol (chromosome)
protein
Torsion dystonia, early onset - (AD)
16.1
Ozelius, L. J.; Hewett, J. W.; Page, C. E.; Bressman, S. B.; Kramer, P. L.; Shalish, C.; de Leon, D.; Brin, M. F.; Raymond, D.; Corey, D. P.; Fahn, S.; Risch, N. J.; Buckler, A. J.; Gusella, J. F.; Breakefield, X. O. : The early-onset torsion dystonia gene (DYT1) encodes an ATP-binding protein. Nature Genet. 17: 40-48, 1997. (10541594)
Ikeuchi, T.; Shimohata, T.; Nakano, R.; Koide, R.; Takano, H.; Tsuji, S. : A case of primary torsion dystonia in Japan with the 3-bp (GAG) deletion in the DYT1 gene with a unique clinical presentation. Neurogenetics 2: 189-190, 1999. (9288096)
TOR1A (9q34)
Torsin A
Myoclonus-dystonia syndrome - (AD)
16.2
Klein, C.; Schilling, K.; Saunders-Pullman, R. J.; Garrels, J.; Breakefield, X. O.; Brin, M. F.; deLeon, D.; Doheny, D.; Fahn, S.; Fink, J. S.; Forsgren, L.; Friedman, J.; and 20 others : A major locus for myoclonus-dystonia maps to chromosome 7q in eight families. Am. J. Hum. Genet. 67: 1314-1319, 2000. (11528394)
Zimprich, A.; Grabowski, M.; Asmus, F.; Naumann, M.; Berg, D.; Bertram, M.; Scheidtmann, K.; Kern, P.; Winkelmann, J.; Muller-Myhsok, B.; Riedel, L.; Bauer, M.; Muller, T.; Castro, M.; Meitinger, T.; Strom, T. M.; Gasser, T. : Mutations in the gene encoding epsilon-sarcoglycan cause myoclonus-dystonia syndrome. Nature Genet. 29: 66-69, 2001. (1102201)
Tezenas du Montcel, S.; Clot, F.; Vidailhet, M.; Roze, E.; Damier, P.; Jedynak, C. P.; Camuzat, A.; Lagueny, A.; Vercueil, L.; Doummar, D.; Guyant-Marechal, L.; Houeto, J.-L.; and 10 others : Epsilon sarcoglycan mutations and phenotype in French patients with myoclonic syndromes. J. Med. Genet. 43: 394-400, 2006. (16227522)
SGCE (7q21-q22)
Sarcoglycan, epsilon
Familial dysautonomia (Riley-Day syndrome) - (AR)
16.3
Blumenfeld A, Slaugenhaupt SA, Axelrod FB, Lucente DE, Maayan C, Liebert CB, Ozelius LJ, Trofatter JA, Haines JL, Breakefield XO, et al. Localization of the gene for familial dysautonomia on chromosome 9 and definition of DNA markers for genetic diagnosis. Nat Genet. 1993 Jun;4(2):160-4. (8102296)
IKBKAP (9q31-q33)
Inhibitor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells, kinase complex-associated protein
Familial amyloid neuropathy - (AD)
16.4
Tawara S, Nakazato M, Kangawa K, Matsuo H, Araki S. Identification of amyloid prealbumin variant in familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy (Japanese type). Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1983 Nov 15;116(3):880-8. (6651852)
Saraiva, M. J. M. : Transthyretin mutations in health and disease. Hum. Mutat. 5: 191-196, 1995. (7599630)
TTR (18q12.1)
Transthyretin (prealbumin, amyloidosis type I)
Congenital fibrosis of the extraocular muscles - (AD)
16.5
Engle EC, Kunkel LM, Specht LA, Beggs AH. Mapping a gene for congenital fibrosis of the extraocular muscles to the centromeric region of chromosome 12. Nat Genet. 1994 May;7(1):69-73. (15621876)
Tiab, L.; d'Alleves Manzi, V.; Borruat, F.-Z.; Munier, F. L.; Schorderet, D. F. : Mutation analysis of KIF21A in congenital fibrosis of the extraocular muscles (CFEOM) patients. Ophthal. Genet. 25: 241-246, 2004. (8075644)
KIF21A (12q12)
Kinesin family member 21A
Congenital fibrosis of the extraocular muscles - (AR)
16.6
Wang, S. M.; Zwaan, J.; Mullaney, P. B.; Jabak, M. H.; Al-Awad, A.; Beggs, A. H.; Engle, E. C. : Congenital fibrosis of the extraocular muscles type 2, an inherited exotropic strabismus fixus, maps to distal 11q13. Am. J. Hum. Genet. 63: 517-525, 1998. (9683611)
Nakano, M.; Yamada, K.; Fain, J.; Sener, E. C.; Selleck, C. J.; Awad, A. H.; Zwaan, J.; Mullaney, P. B.; Bosley, T. M.; Engle, E. C. : Homozygous mutations in ARIX (PHOX2A) result in congenital fibrosis of the extraocular muscles type 2. Nature Genet. 29: 315-320, 2001. (11600883)
PHOX2A (11q13.2)
Paired-like aristaless homeobox protein 2A
Congenital fibrosis of the extraocular muscles - (AD)
16.7
Doherty, E. J.; Macy, M. E.; Wang, S. M.; Dykeman, C. P.; Melanson, M. T.; Engle, E. C. : CFEOM3: a new extraocular congenital fibrosis syndrome that maps to 16q24.2-q24.3. Invest. Ophthal. Vis. Sci. 40: 1687-1694, 1999. (10393037)
Tischfield, M. A., Baris, H. N., Wu, C., Rudolph, G., Van Maldergem, L., He, W., Chan, W.-M., Andrews, C., Demer, J. L., Robertson, R. L., Mackey, D. A., Ruddle, J. B., and 37 others Human TUBB3 mutations perturb microtubule dynamics, kinesin interactions, and axon guidance. Cell 140: 74-87, 2010. (20074521)
TUBB3 (16q24)
Tubulin, beta 3
Distal arthrogryposis type 1 - (AD)
16.8
Sung SS, Brassington AM, Grannatt K, Rutherford A, Whitby FG, Krakowiak PA, Jorde LB, Carey JC, Bamshad M. Mutations in genes encoding fast-twitch contractile proteins cause distal arthrogryposis syndromes. Am J Hum Genet. 2003 Mar;72(3):681-90. (12592607)
TPM2 (9p13)
Tropomyosin 2 (beta)
Distal arthrogryposis type 2A, Freeman-Sheldon syndrome - (AD)
16.9
Toydemir RM, Rutherford A, Whitby FG, Jorde LB, Carey JC, Bamshad MJ. Mutations in embryonic myosin heavy chain (MYH3) cause Freeman-Sheldon syndrome and Sheldon-Hall syndrome. Nat Genet 2006;38:561-565 (12592607)
MYH3 (17p13)
Myosine, heavy chain 3, skeletal muscle, embryonic
Distal arthrogryposis type 2B, Sheldon-Hall syndrome - (AD)
16.10
Sung SS, Brassington AM, Grannatt K, Rutherford A, Whitby FG, Krakowiak PA, Jorde LB, Carey JC, Bamshad M. Mutations in genes encoding fast-twitch contractile proteins cause distal arthrogryposis syndromes. Am J Hum Genet. 2003 Mar;72(3):681-90. (12592607)
Kimber E, Tajsharghi H, Kroksmark AK, Oldfors A, Tulinius M. A mutation in the fast skeletal muscle troponin I gene causes myopathy and distal arthrogryposis. Neurology. 2006 Aug 22;67(4):597-601. (16924011)
TNNI2 (11p15.5)
Troponin I, type 2
Distal arthrogryposis type 2B, Sheldon-Hall syndrome - (AD)
16.11
Sung SS, Brassington AM, Krakowiak PA, Carey JC, Jorde LB, Bamshad M. Mutations in TNNT3 cause multiple congenital contractures: a second locus for distal arthrogryposis type 2B. Am J Hum Genet. 2003 Jul;73(1):212-4. (12865991)
TNNT3 (11p15.5)
Troponin T3, skeletal
Distal arthrogryposis type 2B, Sheldon-Hall syndrome - (AD)
16.12
Toydemir RM, Rutherford A, Whitby FG, Jorde LB, Carey JC, Bamshad MJ. Mutations in embryonic myosin heavy chain (MYH3) cause Freeman-Sheldon syndrome and Sheldon-Hall syndrome. Nat Genet 2006;38:561-565 (12592607)
MYH3 (17p13)
Myosine, heavy chain 3, skeletal muscle, embryonic
Distal arthrogryposis type 2B, Sheldon-Hall syndrome - (AD)
16.13
Tajsharghi H, Kimber E, Holmgren D, Tulinius M, Oldfors A. Distal arthrogryposis and muscle weakness associated with a ß-tropomyosin mutation. Neurology 2007c;68:772-775. (17339586)
Ochala J, Li M, Tajsharghi H, Kimber E, Tulinius M, Oldfors A, Larsson L. Effects of a R133W beta-tropomyosin mutation on regulation of muscle contraction in single human muscle fibres. J Physiol 2007;581:1283-1292. (17430991)
TPM2 (9p13)
Tropomyosin 2 (beta)
Arthrogryposis multiplex congenita with nesprin-1 defect - (AR)
16.14
Attali R, Warwar N, Israel A, Gurt I, McNally E, Puckelwartz M, Glick B, Nevo Y, Ben-Neriah Z and Melki J. Mutation of SYNE-1, encoding an essential component of the nuclear lamina, is responsible for autosomal recessive arthrogryposis. Hum Mol Genet 2009;18:3462-9. (19542096)
SYNE1 (6q25)
Spectrin repeat containing, nuclear envelope 1 (nesprin 1)
Trismus- pseudocamptodactyly - (AD)
16.15
Veugelers M, Bressan M, McDermott DA, Weremowicz S, Morton CC, Mabry CC, Lefaivre JF, Zunamon A, Destree A, Chaudron JM, Basson CT. Mutation of perinatal myosin heavy chain associated with a Carney complex variant. N Engl J Med 2004;351:460-469. (15282353)
Toydemir RM, Chen H, Proud VK, Martin R, van Bokhoven H, Hamel BC, Tuerlings JH, Stratakis CA, Jorde LB, Bamshad MJ. Trismus-pseudocamptodactyly syndrome is caused by recurrent mutation of MYH8. Am J Med Genet A 2006;140: 2387-2393. (17041932)
MYH8 (17p13)
Myosin heavy chain, 8, skeletal muscle, perinatal
Progressive external ophthalmoplegia with mitochondrial DNA deletions, autosomal dominant, 1 - (AD)
16.16
Van Goethem G, Dermaut B, Lofgren A, Martin JJ, Van Broeckhoven C. Mutation of POLG is associated with progressive external ophthalmoplegia characterized by mtDNA deletions. Nat Genet. 2001 Jul;28(3):211-2. (11431686)
POLG (15q25)
Polymerase (DNA directed), gamma
Progressive external ophthalmoplegia with mitochondrial DNA deletions, autosomal dominant, 2 - (AD)
16.17
Kaukonen J, Juselius JK, Tiranti V, Kyttala A, Zeviani M, Comi GP, Keranen S, Peltonen L, Suomalainen A. Role of adenine nucleotide translocator 1 in mtDNA maintenance. Science 2000; 289: 782-785 (10926541)
SLC25A4 (4q35)
Mitochondrial carrier; adenine nucleotide translocator
Progressive external ophthalmoplegia with mitochondrial DNA deletions, autosomal dominant, 3; - (AD)
16.18
Suomalainen, A.; Majander, A.; Wallin, M.; Setala, K.; Kontula, K.; Leinonen, H.; Salmi, T.; Paetau, A.; Haltia, M.; Valanne, L.; Lonnqvist, J.; Peltonen, L.; Somer, H. : Autosomal dominant progressive external ophthalmoplegia with multiple deletions of mtDNA: clinical, biochemical, and molecular genetic features of the 10q-linked disease. Neurology 48: 1244-1253, 1997. (11431692)
Spelbrink, J. N.; Li, F.-Y.; Tiranti, V.; Nikali, K.; Yuan, Q.-P.; Tariq, M.; Wanrooij, S.; Garrido, N.; Comi, G.; Morandi, L.; Santoro, L.; Toscano, A.; and 9 others : Human mitochondrial DNA deletions associated with mutations in the gene encoding twinkle, a phage T7 gene 4-like protein localized in mitochondria. Nature Genet. 28: 223-231, 2001. (9153451)
C10orf2 (10q24.31)
chromosome 10 open reading frame 2
Progressive external ophthalmoplegia with mitochondrial DNA deletions, autosomal dominant, 4; PEOA4 - (AD)
16.19
Longley MJ, Clark S, Yu Wai Man C, Hudson G, Durham SE, Taylor RW, Nightingale S, Turnbull DM, Copeland WC, Chinnery PF. Mutant POLG2 disrupts DNA polymerase gamma subunits and causes progressive external ophthalmoplegia. Am J Hum Genet 2006;78:1026-1034 (16685652)
POLG2 (17q24.1)
Mitochondrial DNA polymerase, accessory subunit
Progressive external ophthalmoplegia with mitochondrial DNA deletions, autosomal dominant, 5 - (AD)
16.20
Tyynismaa, H., Ylikallio, E., Patel, M., Molnar, M. J., Haller, R. G., Suomalainen, A. A heterozygous truncating mutation in RRM2B causes autosomal-dominant progressive external ophthalmoplegia with multiple mtDNA deletions. Am. J. Hum. Genet. 85: 290-295, 2009. (19664747)
RRM2B (8q23.1)
Ribonucleotide reductase M2 B (TP53 inducible)
Mitochondrial DNA depletion myopathy - (AR)
16.21
Saada A, Shaag A, Mandel H, Nevo Y, Eriksson S, Elpeleg O. Mutant mitochondrial thymidine kinase in mitochondrial DNA depletion myopathy. Nat Genet 2001;29:342-344. (11687801)
TK2 (16q22-q23)
Thymidine kinase 2, mitochondrial
Mitochondrial DNA depletion myopathy, encephalomyopathic form - (AR)
16.22
Elpeleg O, Miller C, Hershkovitz E, Bitner-Glindzicz M, Bondi-Rubinstein G, Rahman S, Pagnamenta A, Eshhar S, Saada A. Deficiency of the ADP-forming succinyl-CoA synthase activity is associated with encephalomyopathy and mitochondrial DNA depletion. Am J Hum Genet 2005;76:1081-1086. (15877282)
SUCLA2 (13q12.2-q13.3)
Succinate-CoA ligase, ADP-forming, beta subunit
Mitochondrial DNA depletion myopathy - (AR)
16.23
Bourdon A, Minai L, Serre V, Jais JP, Sarzi E, Aubert S, Chretien D, de Lonlay P, Paquis-Flucklinger V, Arakawa H, Nakamura Y, Munnich A, Rotig A. Mutation of RRM2B, encoding p53-controlled ribonucleotide reductase (p53R2), causes severe mitochondrial DNA depletion. Nat Genet 2007;39:776-780. (17486094)
RRM2B (8q23.1)
Ribonucleotide reductase M2 B (TP53 inducible)
Mitochondrial myopathy - (AR)
16.24
Shamseldin H.E., Smith L.L., Kentab A., et al. Mutation of the mitochondrial carrier SLC25A42 causes a novel form of mitochondrial myopathy in humans. Hum Genet 2015; 135:21–30. (26541337)
SLC25A42 (19p13.11)
solute carrier family 25 member 42
Progressive external ophthalmoplegia with optic atrophy, optic atrophy 1 with de - (AD)
16.25
Amati-Bonneau P, Valentino ML, Reynier P, Gallardo ME, Bornstein B, Boissière A, Campos Y, Rivera H, de la Aleja JG, Carroccia R, Iommarini L, Labauge P, Figarella-Branger D, Marcorelles P, Furby A, Beauvais K, Letournel F, Liguori R, La Morgia C, Montagna P, Liguori M, Zanna C, Rugolo M, Cossarizza A, Wissinger B, Verny C, Schwarzenbacher R, Martín MA, Arenas J, Ayuso C, Garesse R, Lenaers G, Bonneau D, Carelli V. OPA1 mutations induce mitochondrial DNA instability and optic atrophy 'plus' phenotypes. Brain. 2008 Feb;131(Pt 2):338-51. Epub 2007 Dec 24. (18065439)
Hudson G, Amati-Bonneau P, Blakely EL, Stewart JD, He L, Schaefer AM, Griffiths PG, Ahlqvist K, Suomalainen A, Reynier P, McFarland R, Turnbull DM, Chinnery PF, Taylor RW. Mutation of OPA1 causes dominant optic atrophy with external ophthalmoplegia, ataxia, deafness and multiple mitochondrial DNA deletions: a novel disorder of mtDNA maintenance. Brain. 2008 Feb;131(Pt 2):329-37. Epub 2007 Dec 7. (18158317)
OPA1 (3q28-q29)
optic atrophy 1
Tubular aggregate myopathy 1 - (AD)
16.26
Bohm, J., Chevessier, F., Maues De Paula, A., Koch, C., Attarian, S., Feger, C., Hantai, D., Laforet, P., Ghorab, K., Vallat, J.-M., Fardeau, M., Figarella-Branger, D., and 9 others. Constitutive activation of the calcium sensor STIM1 causes tubular-aggregate myopathy. Am. J. Hum. Genet. 92: 271-278, 2013. (23332920)
Hedberg, C., Niceta, M., Fattori, F., Lindvall, B., Ciolfi, A., D'Amico, A., Tasca, G., Petrini, S., Tulinius, M., Tartaglia, M., Oldfors, A., Bertini, E. Childhood onset tubular aggregate myopathy associated with de novo STIM1 mutations. J. Neurol. 261: 870-876, 2014. (24570283)
Nesin V, Wiley G, Kousi M, Ong EC, Lehmann T, Nicholl DJ, Suri M, Shahrizaila N, Katsanis N, Gaffney PM, Wierenga KJ, Tsiokas L. Activating mutations in STIM1 and ORAI1 cause overlapping syndromes of tubular myopathy and congenital miosis.Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014 Mar 18;111(11):4197-202. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1312520111. Epub 2014 Mar 3. (24591628)
STIM1 (11p15.4)
Stromal interaction molecule 1
Tubular aggregate myopathy 2 - (AD)
16.27
Nesin V, Wiley G, Kousi M, Ong EC, Lehmann T, Nicholl DJ, Suri M, Shahrizaila N, Katsanis N, Gaffney PM, Wierenga KJ, Tsiokas L. Activating mutations in STIM1 and ORAI1 cause overlapping syndromes of tubular myopathy and congenital miosis.Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014 Mar 18;111(11):4197-202. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1312520111. Epub 2014 Mar 3. (24591628)
ORAI1 (12q24.31)
ORAI calcium release-activated calcium modulator 1
Mitochondrial myopathy and sideroblastic anemia 1 - (AR)
16.28
Bykhovskaya, Y., Casas, K., Mengesha, E., Inbal, A., Fischel-Ghodsian, N. Missense mutation in pseudouridine synthase 1 (PUS1) causes mitochondrial myopathy and sideroblastic anemia (MLASA). Am. J. Hum. Genet. 74: 1303-1308, 2004. (15108122)
PUS1 (12q24.33)
Pseudouridylate synthase 1
Autosomal dominant mitochondrial myopathy - (AD)
16.29
Ajroud-Driss S, Fecto F, Ajroud K, Lalani I, Calvo SE, Mootha VK, Deng HX, Siddique N, Tahmoush AJ, Heiman-Patterson TD, Siddique T. Mutation in the novel nuclear-encoded mitochondrial protein CHCHD10 in a family with autosomal dominant mitochondrial myopathy. Neurogenetics. 2014 Sep 6. (25193783)
CHCHD10 (22q11.2-q13.2)
Coiled-coil-helix-coiled-coil-helix domain containing 10
16.30
Rossi D, Vezzani B, Galli L, Paolini C, Toniolo L, Pierantozzi E, Spinozzi S, Barone V, Pegoraro E, Bello L, Cenacchi G, Vattemi G, Tomelleri G, Ricci G, Siciliano G, Protasi F, Reggiani C, Sorrentino V. A mutation in the CASQ1 gene causes a vacuolar myopathy with accumulation of sarcoplasmic reticulum protein aggregates. Hum Mutat. 2014 Oct;35(10):1163-70. doi: 10.1002/humu.22631. Epub 2014 Sep 10. (25116801)
CASQ1 (1q21)
Calsequestrin 1 (fast-twitch, skeletal muscle)
Myopathy, lactic acidosis, and sideroblastic anemia-2 - (AR)
16.31
Riley, L. G., Cooper, S., Hickey, P., Rudinger-Thirion, J., McKenzie, M., Compton, A., Lim, S. C., Thorburn, D., Ryan, M. T., Giege, R., Bahlo, M., Christodoulou, J. Mutation of the mitochondrial tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase gene, YARS2, causes myopathy, lactic acidosis, and sideroblastic anemia-MLASA syndrome. Am. J. Hum. Genet. 87: 52-59, 2010. (20598274)
YARS2 (12p11.21)
tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase 2, mitochondrial
Poikiloderma, hereditary fibrosing, with tendon contractures, myopathy, and pulmonary fibrosis - (AD)
16.32
Mercier, S., Kury, S., Shaboodien, G., Houniet, D. T., Khumalo, N. P., Bou-Hanna, C., Bodak, N., Cormier-Daire, V., David, A., Faivre, L., Figarella-Branger, D., Gherardi, R. K., and 18 others. Mutations in FAM111B cause hereditary fibrosing poikiloderma with tendon contracture, myopathy, and pulmonary fibrosis. Am. J. Hum. Genet. 93: 1100-1107, 2013. (24268661)
FAM111B (11q12.1)
family with sequence similarity 111 member B